Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)

In 1997, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences introduced a method for recommending nutrient intakes - the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Before 1997, all recommendations were the Recommendated Dietary Allowances (RDA). Because the IOM wanted to distinguish between different levels of certainty for daily requirements for various nutrients, they came up with the DRIs which include:

  • Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) - expected to satisfy the needs of 50% of the people in that age group.
  • Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) - expected to satisfy the needs of (97–98%) healthy individuals.
  • Adequate Intake (AI) - in place of the RDA, but where more evidence is needed.
  • Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) - highest level of consumption that current data have shown to be safe.
  • Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) - not necessarily considered part of the DRIs, the IOM established this category for energy intake (i.e., calories). Because the EERs are a series of long equations, they are not included here.

Below is a list of all the DRIs. For more details about the DRIs, such as whether a specific DRI is an EAR, AI, or RDA, see the DRI Tables on the USDA's website.



Protein Age DRI
(g/kg)
Infant0 - 6 m1.52
Infant7 - 12 m1.00
Child1 - 3 y1.05
Child4 - 8 y0.95
Male9 - 13 y0.95
Male14 - 18 y0.85
Male19 - 30 y0.80
Male31 - 50 y0.80
Male51 - 70 y0.80
Male71+ y0.80
Female9 - 13 y0.95
Female14 - 18 y0.85
Female19 - 30 y0.80
Female31 - 50 y0.80
Female51 - 70 y0.80
Female71+ y0.80
Pregnant14 - 18 y1.1 g/kg + 25 g
Pregnant19 - 30 y1.1 g/kg + 25 g
Pregnant31+ y1.1 g/kg + 25 g
Nursing14 - 18 y1.3 g/kg + 25 g
Nursing19 - 30 y1.3 g/kg + 25 g
Nursing31+ y1.3 g/kg + 25 g
 
Fat Age DRI
(g)
Infant0 - 6 m31
Infant7 - 12 m30
 
Linoleic Acid Age DRI
(g)
Infant0 - 6 m4.4*
Infant7 - 12 m4.6*
Child1 - 3 y7
Child4 - 8 y10
Male9 - 13 y12
Male14 - 18 y16
Male19 - 30 y17
Male31 - 50 y17
Male51 - 70 y14
Male71+ y14
Female9 - 13 y10
Female14 - 18 y11
Female19 - 30 y12
Female31 - 50 y12
Female51 - 70 y11
Female71+ y11
Pregnant14 - 18 y13
Pregnant19 - 30 y13
Pregnant31+ y13
Nursing14 - 18 y13
Nursing19 - 30 y13
Nursing31+ y13
*Total omega-6 fat
 
α-Linolenic Acid Age DRI
(g)
Infant0 - 6 m0.5*
Infant7 - 12 m0.5*
Child1 - 3 y0.7
Child4 - 8 y0.9
Male9 - 13 y1.2
Male14 - 18 y1.6
Male19 - 30 y1.6
Male31 - 50 y1.6
Male51 - 70 y1.6
Male71+ y1.6
Female9 - 13 y1.0
Female14 - 18 y1.1
Female19 - 30 y1.1
Female31 - 50 y1.1
Female51 - 70 y1.1
Female71+ y1.1
Pregnant14 - 18 y1.4
Pregnant19 - 30 y1.4
Pregnant31+ y1.4
Nursing14 - 18 y1.3
Nursing19 - 30 y1.3
Nursing31+ y1.3
*Total omega-3 fat
 
Carbohydrate Age DRI
(g)
Infant0 - 6 m60
Infant7 - 12 m95
Child1 - 3 y130
Child4 - 8 y130
Male9 - 13 y130
Male14 - 18 y130
Male19 - 30 y130
Male31 - 50 y130
Male51 - 70 y130
Male71+ y130
Female9 - 13 y130
Female14 - 18 y130
Female19 - 30 y130
Female31 - 50 y130
Female51 - 70 y130
Female71+ y130
Pregnant14 - 18 y175
Pregnant19 - 30 y175
Pregnant31+ y175
Nursing14 - 18 y160
Nursing19 - 30 y160
Nursing31+ y160
 
Fiber Age DRI
(g)
Infant0 - 6 m0
Infant7 - 12 m0
Child1 - 3 y19
Child4 - 8 y25
Male9 - 13 y31
Male14 - 18 y38
Male19 - 30 y38
Male31 - 50 y38
Male51 - 70 y30
Male71+ y30
Female9 - 13 y26
Female14 - 18 y26
Female19 - 30 y25
Female31 - 50 y25
Female51 - 70 y21
Female71+ y21
Pregnant14 - 18 y28
Pregnant19 - 30 y28
Pregnant31+ y28
Nursing14 - 18 y29
Nursing19 - 30 y29
Nursing31+ y29
 
Calcium Age DRI
(mg)
Infant0 - 6 m200
Infant7 - 12 m260
Child1 - 3 y700
Child4 - 8 y1,000
Male9 - 13 y1,300
Male14 - 18 y1,300
Male19 - 30 y1,000
Male31 - 50 y1,000
Male51 - 70 y1,000
Male71+ y1,200
Female9 - 13 y1,300
Female14 - 18 y1,300
Female19 - 30 y1,000
Female31 - 50 y1,000
Female51 - 70 y1,000
Female71+ y1,200
Pregnant14 - 18 y1,300
Pregnant19 - 30 y1,000
Pregnant31+ y1,000
Nursing14 - 18 y1,300
Nursing19 - 30 y1,000
Nursing31+ y1,000
 
Copper Age DRI
(mcg)
Infant0 - 6 m200
Infant7 - 12 m220
Child1 - 3 y340
Child4 - 8 y440
Male9 - 13 y700
Male14 - 18 y890
Male19 - 30 y900
Male31 - 50 y900
Male51 - 70 y900
Male71+ y900
Female9 - 13 y700
Female14 - 18 y890
Female19 - 30 y900
Female31 - 50 y900
Female51 - 70 y900
Female71+ y900
Pregnant14 - 18 y1,000
Pregnant19 - 30 y1,000
Pregnant31+ y1,000
Nursing14 - 18 y1,200
Nursing19 - 30 y1,200
Nursing31+ y1,200
 
Fluoride Age DRI
(mcg)
Infant0 - 6 m0.01
Infant7 - 12 m0.50
Child1 - 3 y0.70
Child4 - 8 y1
Male9 - 13 y2
Male14 - 18 y3
Male19 - 30 y4
Male31 - 50 y4
Male51 - 70 y4
Male71+ y4
Female9 - 13 y2
Female14 - 18 y3
Female19 - 30 y3
Female31 - 50 y3
Female51 - 70 y3
Female71+ y3
Pregnant14 - 18 y3
Pregnant19 - 30 y3
Pregnant31+ y3
Nursing14 - 18 y3
Nursing19 - 30 y3
Nursing31+ y3
 
Iron Age DRI
(mg)
Infant0 - 6 m0.27
Infant7 - 12 m11
Child1 - 3 y7
Child4 - 8 y10
Male9 - 13 y8
Male14 - 18 y11
Male19 - 30 y8
Male31 - 50 y8
Male51 - 70 y8
Male71+ y8
Female9 - 13 y8
Female14 - 18 y15
Female19 - 30 y18
Female31 - 50 y18
Female51 - 70 y8
Female71+ y8
Pregnant14 - 18 y27
Pregnant19 - 30 y27
Pregnant31+ y27
Nursing14 - 18 y10
Nursing19 - 30 y10
Nursing31+ y9
 
Magnesium Age DRI
(mg)
Infant0 - 6 m30
Infant7 - 12 m75
Child1 - 3 y80
Child4 - 8 y130
Male9 - 13 y240
Male14 - 18 y410
Male19 - 30 y400
Male31 - 50 y420
Male51 - 70 y420
Male71+ y420
Female9 - 13 y240
Female14 - 18 y360
Female19 - 30 y310
Female31 - 50 y320
Female51 - 70 y320
Female71+ y320
Pregnant14 - 18 y400
Pregnant19 - 30 y350
Pregnant31+ y360
Nursing14 - 18 y360
Nursing19 - 30 y310
Nursing31+ y320
 
Manganese Age DRI
(mg)
Infant0 - 6 m0.003
Infant7 - 12 m0.6
Child1 - 3 y1.2
Child4 - 8 y1.5
Male9 - 13 y1.9
Male14 - 18 y2.2
Male19 - 30 y2.3
Male31 - 50 y2.3
Male51 - 70 y2.3
Male71+ y2.3
Female9 - 13 y1.6
Female14 - 18 y1.6
Female19 - 30 y1.8
Female31 - 50 y1.8
Female51 - 70 y1.8
Female71+ y1.8
Pregnant14 - 18 y2.0
Pregnant19 - 30 y2.0
Pregnant31+ y2.0
Nursing14 - 18 y2.6
Nursing19 - 30 y2.6
Nursing31+ y2.6
 
Phosphorus Age DRI
(mg)
Infant0 - 6 m100
Infant7 - 12 m275
Child1 - 3 y460
Child4 - 8 y500
Male9 - 13 y1,250
Male14 - 18 y1,250
Male19 - 30 y700
Male31 - 50 y700
Male51 - 70 y700
Male71+ y700
Female9 - 13 y1,250
Female14 - 18 y1,250
Female19 - 30 y700
Female31 - 50 y700
Female51 - 70 y700
Female71+ y700
Pregnant14 - 18 y1,250
Pregnant19 - 30 y700
Pregnant31+ y700
Nursing14 - 18 y1,250
Nursing19 - 30 y700
Nursing31+ y700
 
Potassium Age DRI
(mg)
Infant0 - 6 m400
Infant7 - 12 m700
Child1 - 3 y3,000
Child4 - 8 y3,800
Male9 - 13 y4,500
Male14 - 18 y4,700
Male19 - 30 y4,700
Male31 - 50 y4,700
Male51 - 70 y4,700
Male71+ y4,700
Female9 - 13 y4,500
Female14 - 18 y4,700
Female19 - 30 y4,700
Female31 - 50 y4,700
Female51 - 70 y4,700
Female71+ y4,700
Pregnant14 - 18 y4,700
Pregnant19 - 30 y4,700
Pregnant31+ y4,700
Nursing14 - 18 y5,100
Nursing19 - 30 y5,100
Nursing31+ y5,100
 
Selenium Age DRI
(mcg)
Infant0 - 6 m15
Infant7 - 12 m20
Child1 - 3 y20
Child4 - 8 y30
Male9 - 13 y40
Male14 - 18 y55
Male19 - 30 y55
Male31 - 50 y55
Male51 - 70 y55
Male71+ y55
Female9 - 13 y40
Female14 - 18 y55
Female19 - 30 y55
Female31 - 50 y55
Female51 - 70 y55
Female71+ y55
Pregnant14 - 18 y60
Pregnant19 - 30 y60
Pregnant31+ y60
Nursing14 - 18 y70
Nursing19 - 30 y70
Nursing31+ y70
 
Sodium Age DRI
(mg)
Infant0 - 6 m120
Infant7 - 12 m370
Child1 - 3 y1,000
Child4 - 8 y1,200
Male9 - 13 y1,500
Male14 - 18 y1,500
Male19 - 30 y1,500
Male31 - 50 y1,500
Male51 - 70 y1,300
Male71+ y1,200
Female9 - 13 y1,500
Female14 - 18 y1,500
Female19 - 30 y1,500
Female31 - 50 y1,500
Female51 - 70 y1,300
Female71+ y1,200
Pregnant14 - 18 y1,500
Pregnant19 - 30 y1,500
Pregnant31+ y1,500
Nursing14 - 18 y1,500
Nursing19 - 30 y1,500
Nursing31+ y1,500
 
Zinc Age DRI
(mg)
Infant0 - 6 m2
Infant7 - 12 m3
Child1 - 3 y3
Child4 - 8 y5
Male9 - 13 y8
Male14 - 18 y11
Male19 - 30 y11
Male31 - 50 y11
Male51 - 70 y11
Male71+ y11
Female9 - 13 y8
Female14 - 18 y9
Female19 - 30 y8
Female31 - 50 y8
Female51 - 70 y8
Female71+ y8
Pregnant14 - 18 y12
Pregnant19 - 30 y11
Pregnant31+ y11
Nursing14 - 18 y13
Nursing19 - 30 y12
Nursing31+ y12
 
Thiamin (B1) Age DRI
(mg)
Infant0 - 6 m0.2
Infant7 - 12 m0.3
Child1 - 3 y0.5
Child4 - 8 y0.6
Male9 - 13 y0.9
Male14 - 18 y1.2
Male19 - 30 y1.2
Male31 - 50 y1.2
Male51 - 70 y1.2
Male71+ y1.2
Female9 - 13 y0.9
Female14 - 18 y1.0
Female19 - 30 y1.1
Female31 - 50 y1.1
Female51 - 70 y1.1
Female71+ y1.1
Pregnant14 - 18 y1.4
Pregnant19 - 30 y1.4
Pregnant31+ y1.4
Nursing14 - 18 y1.4
Nursing19 - 30 y1.4
Nursing31+ y1.4
 
Riboflavin (B2) Age DRI
(mg)
Infant0 - 6 m0.3
Infant7 - 12 m0.4
Child1 - 3 y0.5
Child4 - 8 y0.6
Male9 - 13 y0.9
Male14 - 18 y1.3
Male19 - 30 y1.3
Male31 - 50 y1.3
Male51 - 70 y1.3
Male71+ y1.3
Female9 - 13 y0.9
Female14 - 18 y1.0
Female19 - 30 y1.1
Female31 - 50 y1.1
Female51 - 70 y1.1
Female71+ y1.1
Pregnant14 - 18 y1.4
Pregnant19 - 30 y1.4
Pregnant31+ y1.4
Nursing14 - 18 y1.6
Nursing19 - 30 y1.6
Nursing31+ y1.6
 
Niacin (B3) Age DRI
(mg)
Infant0 - 6 m2
Infant7 - 12 m4
Child1 - 3 y6
Child4 - 8 y8
Male9 - 13 y12
Male14 - 18 y16
Male19 - 30 y16
Male31 - 50 y16
Male51 - 70 y16
Male71+ y16
Female9 - 13 y12
Female14 - 18 y14
Female19 - 30 y14
Female31 - 50 y14
Female51 - 70 y14
Female71+ y14
Pregnant14 - 18 y18
Pregnant19 - 30 y18
Pregnant31+ y18
Nursing14 - 18 y17
Nursing19 - 30 y17
Nursing31+ y17
 
Pantothenic Acid (B5) Age DRI
(mg)
Infant0 - 6 m1.7
Infant7 - 12 m1.8
Child1 - 3 y2
Child4 - 8 y3
Male9 - 13 y4
Male14 - 18 y5
Male19 - 30 y5
Male31 - 50 y5
Male51 - 70 y5
Male71+ y5
Female9 - 13 y4
Female14 - 18 y5
Female19 - 30 y5
Female31 - 50 y5
Female51 - 70 y5
Female71+ y5
Pregnant14 - 18 y6
Pregnant19 - 30 y6
Pregnant31+ y6
Nursing14 - 18 y7
Nursing19 - 30 y7
Nursing31+ y7
 
Pyridoxine (B6) Age DRI
(mg)
Infant0 - 6 m0.1
Infant7 - 12 m0.3
Child1 - 3 y0.5
Child4 - 8 y0.6
Male9 - 13 y1.0
Male14 - 18 y1.3
Male19 - 30 y1.3
Male31 - 50 y1.3
Male51 - 70 y1.7
Male71+ y1.7
Female9 - 13 y1.0
Female14 - 18 y1.2
Female19 - 30 y1.3
Female31 - 50 y1.3
Female51 - 70 y1.5
Female71+ y1.5
Pregnant14 - 18 y1.9
Pregnant19 - 30 y1.9
Pregnant31+ y1.9
Nursing14 - 18 y2.0
Nursing19 - 30 y2.0
Nursing31+ y2.0
 
Folate Age DRI
(mcg)
Infant0 - 6 m65
Infant7 - 12 m80
Child1 - 3 y150
Child4 - 8 y200
Male9 - 13 y300
Male14 - 18 y400
Male19 - 30 y400
Male31 - 50 y400
Male51 - 70 y400
Male71+ y400
Female9 - 13 y300
Female14 - 18 y400
Female19 - 30 y400
Female31 - 50 y400
Female51 - 70 y400
Female71+ y400
Pregnant14 - 18 y600
Pregnant19 - 30 y600
Pregnant31+ y600
Nursing14 - 18 y500
Nursing19 - 30 y500
Nursing31+ y500
 
Vitamin B12 Age DRI
(mcg)
Infant0 - 6 m0.4
Infant7 - 12 m0.5
Child1 - 3 y0.9
Child4 - 8 y1.2
Male9 - 13 y1.8
Male14 - 18 y2.4
Male19 - 30 y2.4
Male31 - 50 y2.4
Male51 - 70 y2.4
Male71+ y2.4
Female9 - 13 y1.8
Female14 - 18 y2.4
Female19 - 30 y2.4
Female31 - 50 y2.4
Female51 - 70 y2.4
Female71+ y2.4
Pregnant14 - 18 y2.6
Pregnant19 - 30 y2.6
Pregnant31+ y2.6
Nursing14 - 18 y2.8
Nursing19 - 30 y2.8
Nursing31+ y2.8
 
Vitamin C Age DRI
(mg)
Infant0 - 6 m40
Infant7 - 12 m50
Child1 - 3 y15
Child4 - 8 y25
Male9 - 13 y45
Male14 - 18 y75
Male19 - 30 y90
Male31 - 50 y90
Male51 - 70 y90
Male71+ y90
Female9 - 13 y45
Female14 - 18 y65
Female19 - 30 y75
Female31 - 50 y75
Female51 - 70 y75
Female71+ y75
Pregnant14 - 18 y80
Pregnant19 - 30 y85
Pregnant31+ y85
Nursing14 - 18 y115
Nursing19 - 30 y120
Nursing31+ y120
 
Vitamin A Age DRI
(RAE)
Infant0 - 6 m400
Infant7 - 12 m500
Child1 - 3 y300
Child4 - 8 y400
Male9 - 13 y600
Male14 - 18 y900
Male19 - 30 y900
Male31 - 50 y900
Male51 - 70 y900
Male71+ y900
Female9 - 13 y600
Female14 - 18 y700
Female19 - 30 y700
Female31 - 50 y700
Female51 - 70 y700
Female71+ y700
Pregnant14 - 18 y750
Pregnant19 - 30 y770
Pregnant31+ y770
Nursing14 - 18 y1,200
Nursing19 - 30 y1,300
Nursing31+ y1,300
 
Vitamin D Age DRI
(mcg)
Infant0 - 6 m10
Infant7 - 12 m10
Child1 - 3 y15
Child4 - 8 y15
Male9 - 13 y15
Male14 - 18 y15
Male19 - 30 y15
Male31 - 50 y15
Male51 - 70 y15
Male71+ y20
Female9 - 13 y15
Female14 - 18 y15
Female19 - 30 y15
Female31 - 50 y15
Female51 - 70 y15
Female71+ y20
Pregnant14 - 18 y15
Pregnant19 - 30 y15
Pregnant31+ y15
Nursing14 - 18 y15
Nursing19 - 30 y15
Nursing31+ y15
 
Vitamin E Age DRI
(mg)
Infant0 - 6 m4
Infant7 - 12 m5
Child1 - 3 y6
Child4 - 8 y7
Male9 - 13 y11
Male14 - 18 y15
Male19 - 30 y15
Male31 - 50 y15
Male51 - 70 y15
Male71+ y15
Female9 - 13 y11
Female14 - 18 y15
Female19 - 30 y15
Female31 - 50 y15
Female51 - 70 y15
Female71+ y15
Pregnant14 - 18 y15
Pregnant19 - 30 y15
Pregnant31+ y15
Nursing14 - 18 y19
Nursing19 - 30 y19
Nursing31+ y19
 
Vitamin K Age DRI
(mcg)
Infant0 - 6 m2.0
Infant7 - 12 m2.5
Child1 - 3 y30
Child4 - 8 y55
Male9 - 13 y60
Male14 - 18 y75
Male19 - 30 y120
Male31 - 50 y120
Male51 - 70 y120
Male71+ y120
Female9 - 13 y60
Female14 - 18 y75
Female19 - 30 y90
Female31 - 50 y90
Female51 - 70 y90
Female71+ y90
Pregnant14 - 18 y75
Pregnant19 - 30 y90
Pregnant31+ y90
Nursing14 - 18 y75
Nursing19 - 30 y90
Nursing31+ y90
 
Choline Age DRI
(mg)
Infant0 - 6 m125
Infant7 - 12 m150
Child1 - 3 y200
Child4 - 8 y250
Male9 - 13 y375
Male14 - 18 y550
Male19 - 30 y7 mg/kg
Male31 - 50 y7 mg/kg
Male51 - 70 y7 mg/kg
Male71+ y7 mg/kg
Female9 - 13 y375
Female14 - 18 y7
Female19 - 30 y7 mg/kg
Female31 - 50 y7 mg/kg
Female51 - 70 y7 mg/kg
Female71+ y7 mg/kg
Pregnant14 - 18 y450
Pregnant19 - 30 y450
Pregnant31+ y450
Nursing14 - 18 y550
Nursing19 - 30 y550
Nursing31+ y550
 
Histidine Age DRI
(mg/kg)
Infant0 - 6 m36
Infant7 - 12 m32
Child1 - 3 y21
Child4 - 8 y16
Male9 - 13 y17
Male14 - 18 y15
Male19+ y14
Female9 - 13 y15
Female14 - 18 y14
Female19+ y14
Pregnant14+ y18
Nursing14+ y19
 
Isoleucine Age DRI
(mg/kg)
Infant0 - 6 m88
Infant7 - 12 m43
Child1 - 3 y28
Child4 - 8 y22
Male9 - 13 y22
Male14 - 18 y21
Male19+ y19
Female9 - 13 y21
Female14 - 18 y19
Female19+ y19
Pregnant14+ y25
Nursing14+ y30
 
Leucine Age DRI
(mg/kg)
Infant0 - 6 m156
Infant7 - 12 m93
Child1 - 3 y63
Child4 - 8 y49
Male9 - 13 y49
Male14 - 18 y47
Male19+ y42
Female9 - 13 y47
Female14 - 18 y44
Female19+ y42
Pregnant14+ y56
Nursing14+ y62
 
Lysine Age DRI
(mg/kg)
Infant0 - 6 m107
Infant7 - 12 m89
Child1 - 3 y58
Child4 - 8 y46
Male9 - 13 y46
Male14 - 18 y43
Male19+ y38
Female9 - 13 y43
Female14 - 18 y40
Female19+ y38
Pregnant14+ y51
Nursing14+ y52
 
Methione + Cysteine Age DRI
(mg/kg)
Infant0 - 6 m59
Infant7 - 12 m43
Child1 - 3 y28
Child4 - 8 y22
Male9 - 13 y22
Male14 - 18 y21
Male19+ y19
Female9 - 13 y21
Female14 - 18 y19
Female19+ y19
Pregnant14+ y25
Nursing14+ y26
 
Phenylalanine + Tyrosine Age DRI
(mg/kg)
Infant0 - 6 m135
Infant7 - 12 m84
Child1 - 3 y54
Child4 - 8 y41
Male9 - 13 y41
Male14 - 18 y38
Male19+ y33
Female9 - 13 y38
Female14 - 18 y35
Female19+ y33
Pregnant14+ y44
Nursing14+ y51
 
Threonine Age DRI
(mg/kg)
Infant0 - 6 m73
Infant7 - 12 m49
Child1 - 3 y32
Child4 - 8 y24
Male9 - 13 y24
Male14 - 18 y22
Male19+ y20
Female9 - 13 y22
Female14 - 18 y21
Female19+ y20
Pregnant14+ y26
Nursing14+ y30
 
Tryptophan Age DRI
(mg/kg)
Infant0 - 6 m28
Infant7 - 12 m13
Child1 - 3 y8
Child4 - 8 y6
Male9 - 13 y6
Male14 - 18 y6
Male19+ y5
Female9 - 13 y6
Female14 - 18 y5
Female19+ y5
Pregnant14+ y7
Nursing14+ y9
 
Valine Age DRI
(mg/kg)
Infant0 - 6 m87
Infant7 - 12 m58
Child1 - 3 y37
Child4 - 8 y28
Male9 - 13 y28
Male14 - 18 y27
Male19+ y24
Female9 - 13 y27
Female14 - 18 y24
Female19+ y24
Pregnant14+ y31
Nursing14+ y35